Li-ion Battery 3.7V
A lithium-ion battery 3.7V or Li-ion Battery 3.7V (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery. Li-ion Battery 3.7Vs are commonly used for portable electronics and electric vehicles and are growing in popularity for military and aerospace applications.
A prototype Li-ion Battery 3.7V was developed by Akira Yoshino in 1985, based on earlier research by John Goodenough, Stanley Whittingham, Rachid Yazami and Koichi Mizushima during the 1970s–1980s, and then a commercial Li-ion Battery 3.7V was developed by a Sony and Asahi Kasei team led by Yoshio Nishi in 1991.
In the Li-ion Battery 3.7Vs, lithium ions move from the negative electrode through an electrolyte to the positive electrode during discharge, and back when charging. Li-ion Battery 3.7Vs use an intercalated lithium compound as the material at the positive electrode and typically graphite at the negative electrode.
The Li-ion Battery 3.7Vs have a high energy density, no memory effect (other than LFP cells) and low self-discharge. They can however be a safety hazard since they contain a flammable electrolyte, and if damaged or incorrectly charged can lead to explosions and fires.
Samsung was forced to recall Galaxy Note 7 handsets following lithium-ion fires, and there have been several incidents involving batteries on Boeing 787s.
Chemistry, performance, cost and safety characteristics vary across Li-ion Battery 3.7V types. Handheld electronics mostly use lithium polymer batteries (with a polymer gel as electrolyte) with lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) as cathode material, which offers high energy density, but presents safety risks, especially when damaged.
Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), lithium ion manganese oxide battery (LiMn2O4, Li2MnO3, or LMO), and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LiNiMnCoO2 or NMC) offer lower energy density but longer lives and less likelihood of fire or explosion. Such batteries are widely used for electric tools, medical equipment, and other roles. NMC and its derivatives are widely used in electric vehicles.
Research areas for lithium-ion batteries include extending lifetime, increasing energy density, improving safety, reducing cost, and increasing charging speed, among others.
Research has been under way in the area of non-flammable electrolytes as a pathway to increased safety based on the flammability and volatility of the organic solvents used in the typical electrolyte. Strategies include aqueous lithium-ion batteries, ceramic solid electrolytes, polymer electrolytes, ionic liquids, and heavily fluorinated systems.
The three primary functional components of a lithium-ion battery are the positive and negative electrodes and electrolyte. Generally, the negative electrode of a conventional lithium-ion cell is made from carbon.
The positive electrode is typically a metal oxide. The electrolyte is a lithium salt in an organic solvent. The electrochemical roles of the electrodes reverse between anode and cathode, depending on the direction of current flow through the cell.
The most commercially popular anode (negative electrode) is graphite. The positive electrode is generally one of three materials: a layered oxide (such as lithium cobalt oxide), a polyanion (such as lithium iron phosphate) or a spinel (such as lithium manganese oxide).
Recently, graphene containing electrodes (based on 2D and 3D structures of graphene) have also been used as components of electrodes for lithium batteries.
The electrolyte is typically a mixture of organic carbonates such as ethylene carbonate or diethyl carbonate containing complexes of lithium ions.
These non-aqueous electrolytes generally use non-coordinating anion salts such as lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium hexafluoroarsenate monohydrate (LiAsF6), lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4), and lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3).
Depending on materials choices, the voltage, energy density, life, and safety of a lithium-ion battery can change dramatically. Current effort has been exploring the use of novel architectures using nanotechnology have been employed to improve performance. Areas on interest include nano-scale electrode materials and alternative electrode structures.
Pure lithium is highly reactive. It reacts vigorously with water to form lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and hydrogen gas. Thus, a non-aqueous electrolyte is typically used, and a sealed container rigidly excludes moisture from the battery pack.
Lithium-ion batteries are more expensive than NiCd batteries but operate over a wider temperature range with higher energy densities. They require a protective circuit to limit the peak voltage.
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