An LM-324N IC is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. In this configuration, an LM-324N IC produces an output potential (relative to circuit ground) that is typically 100,000 times larger than the potential difference between its input terminals. LM-324N ICs had their origins in analog computers, where they were used to perform mathematical operations in many linear, non-linear, and frequency-dependent circuits.
The popularity of the LM-324N IC as a building block in analog circuits is due to its versatility. By using negative feedback, the characteristics of an op-amp circuit, its gain, input and output impedance, bandwidth etc. are determined by external components and have little dependence on temperature coefficients or engineering tolerance in the op amp itself.
LM-324N ICs are among the most widely used electronic devices today, being used in a vast array of consumer, industrial, and scientific devices.
Many standard IC op amps cost only a few cents in moderate production volume; however, some integrated or hybrid operational amplifiers with special performance specifications may cost over US$100 in small quantities. LM-324N ICs may be packaged as components or used as elements of more complex integrated circuits.
The LM-324N IC is one type of differential amplifier.
Other types of differential amplifier include the fully differential amplifier (similar to the op amp, but with two outputs), the instrumentation amplifier (usually built from three op amps), the isolation amplifier (similar to the instrumentation amplifier, but with tolerance to common-mode voltages that would destroy an ordinary op amp), and negative-feedback amplifier (usually built from one or more op amps and a resistive feedback network).
The use of op amps as circuit blocks is much easier and clearer than specifying all their individual circuit elements (transistors, resistors, etc.), whether the amplifiers used are integrated or discrete circuits. In the first approximation op amps can be used as if they were ideal differential gain blocks; at a later stage limits can be placed on the acceptable range of parameters for each op amp.
Circuit design follows the same lines for all electronic circuits. A specification is drawn up governing what the circuit is required to do, with allowable limits. For example, the gain may be required to be 100 times, with a tolerance of 5% but drift of less than 1% in a specified temperature range; the input impedance not less than one megohm; etc.
A basic circuit is designed, often with the help of circuit modeling (on a computer). Specific commercially available op amps and other components are then chosen that meet the design criteria within the specified tolerances at acceptable cost. If not all criteria can be met, the specification may need to be modified.
A prototype is then built and tested; changes to meet or improve the specification, alter functionality, or reduce the cost, may be made.
LM-324N IC is a 14pin IC consisting of four independent operational amplifiers (op-amps) compensated in a single package. Op-amps are high gain electronic voltage amplifier with differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. The output voltage is many times higher than the voltage difference between input terminals of an op-amp.
These op-amps are operated by a single power supply LM-324N IC and need for a dual supply is eliminated. They can be used as amplifiers, comparators, oscillators, rectifiers etc. The conventional op-amp applications can be more easily implemented with LM-324N IC.
- LM-324N IC operates on a single power supply and contains true differential inputs that operate in linear mode.
- It can operate over a multiple range of power supply voltage which have little impact on performance characteristics.
- At 25 ºC, Lm324n can operate over a minimum voltage supply of 2.3V.
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